B. Kotter's 8 - Step Plan For Implementing Change - Motivation Theory


1. Built on Lewin’s model; a more detailed approach for implementing change.

  • List common failures managers make when initiating change

a. Inability to create a sense of urgency for change

b. Failure to create a coalition for managing the change process

c. Lack of a vision for change; not communicating the vision

d. Not removing obstacles that could impede the attainment of the vision

e. Failure to provide short-term goals

f. A tendency to declare victory too soon

g. Not anchoring the changes into the organization’s culture


  • Eight sequential steps to overcome the problems above (see Exhibit 18-5).

a. First four steps extrapolate on the unfreezing stage

b. Steps 5-7 represent “movement”

c. Final step works on refreezing.

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