1. Early work revolved around attempts to identify and label enduring characteristics.
a. Popular characteristics include shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal,
and timid. These are personality traits.
b. The more consistent the characteristic, the more frequently it occurs, the more important it is.
2. Researchers believe that personality traits can help in employee selection, job fit, and
3. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
a. One of the most widely used personality frameworks is the Myers-Briggs Type
b. It is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in
c. Individuals are classified as:
i. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).
ii. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).
iii. Thinking or feeling (T or F).
iv. Perceiving or judging (P or J).
d. These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:
i. INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.
ii. ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural head for business or mechanics.
iii. The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments.
e. MBTI widely used in practice. Some organizations using it include Apple Computer,
AT&T, Citigroup, GE, 3M Co., and others.